Re:Gender works to end gender inequity and discrimination against girls and women by exposing root causes and advancing research-informed action. Working with multiple sectors and disciplines, we are shaping a world that demands fairness across difference.
Analysis of the Census Bureau's 2000 and 2010 Current Population Survey Fertility Supplements finds that women with a college degree are giving birth at a later age than other women and having fewer children overall by the end of their childbearing years.
In 2010, the women's education level made less of a difference in their total number of children than it did in 2000. Women 35 to 44 (corresponding with the 25 to 34 age group in 2000) with at least a bachelor's degree had 1.7 births, while women who had less than a high school education had 2.5 births. Eighty-eight percent of women 35 to 44 with less than a high school education had a birth compared with 76 percent of women with at least a bachelor's degree
Other highlights from the press release:
Foreign-born women were more likely to have ever had a baby than were native-born women by the age of 40 to 44, at 87 percent compared with 80 percent.
More than half (55 percent) of women who had a child in the last year were in the labor force. Of those women, about one third (34 percent) were working full time, 14 percent were working part time, and 7 percent were unemployed.
Almost one-quarter (23 percent) of women with a birth in the last year reported living in households with family incomes of at least $75,000. At the other end of the income scale, about one in five (21 percent) were living in families with incomes under $20,000.
By age 40 to 44, white non-Hispanic women (20.6 percent) were more likely to be childless than Hispanic women (12.4 percent), black women (17.2 percent) and Asian women (15.9 percent). Black women were also more likely to be childless than Hispanic women. Asian women did not differ from black or Hispanic women.
Differences in childlessness by race and origin are more substantial for women who have never married. Among these women age 40 to 44, white non-Hispanic women were more likely to be childless (69.5 percent) than black women (27.8 percent) and Hispanic women (36.4 percent). No significant difference in childlessness among those who had never married was found between black and Hispanic women, or white non-Hispanic women and Asian women (65.8 percent).
A study published in the American Journal of Public Health finds that more than 400,000 women are raped in the Democratic Republic of Congo every year, an average of 1,100 women a day. Around 60 percent of victims were forced to have sex by their husbands or partners. The study used nationwide data collected by the government between 2006 and 2007.
From the press release:
A new study based on examination of government-collected and nationally representative data from the Democratic Republic of Congo shows that levels of rape and sexual violence against women in the country are 26 times higher than official United Nations estimates. The study, spearheaded by The Center for Health Services and Outcomes Research, Graduate Program in Public Health, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, is published in the American Journal of Public Health.
Tia M. Palermo, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Preventive Medicine, Graduate Program in Public Health, and colleagues, found in their analysis that more than 400,000 women ages 15 to 49 in the DRC had experienced rape in a 12-month period in 2006 and 2007. That is the equivalent to 1,152 women raped every day, 48 raped every hour, or four women raped every five minutes.
A survey by the Commonwealth Fund shows that women will benefit from more access to health care once the Affordable Care Act is fully implemented in 2014.
From the Overview:
Women have greater health care needs than men, and generally play larger roles in the health care of family members. Rising health care costs combined with sluggish income growth has contributed to losses in health insurance among women and rising rates of problems gaining necessary health care and paying medical bills. Women who seek coverage in the individual insurance market face additional hurdles—few plans offer maternity coverage and, in most states, insurance carriers charge higher premium rates to young women than men of the same age. The Affordable Care Act is bringing change for women through required free coverage of preventive care services, small business tax credits, new affordable coverage options, and insurance market reforms, including bans on gender rating. When the law is fully implemented in 2014, nearly all the 27 million working-age women who went without health insurance in 2010 will gain affordable and comprehensive benefits. Data for this study were drawn from the Commonwealth Fund 2010 Biennial Health Insurance Survey, conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International from July 14 through November 30, 2010. The survey consisted of 25-minute telephone interviews in either English or Spanish with a random, national sample of 4,005 adults, age 19 and older, living in the continental United States.
The Penn Mutual Life Insurance Company's survey suggests that women undervalue the work they do outside of employment.
From the press release: In Penn Mutual's third annual Worth for Women Survey, women and men were asked to place a dollar value on the work they do away from their jobs. Both groups put the dollar estimate at around $25,000 per year. Respondents were then asked to list the hours they spent doing a variety of work or services, such as laundry, meal preparation or child care. When Penn Mutual calculated the value of the actual hours reported doing household jobs, they found that men overestimate the value of what they do by almost 13 percent. In contrast, women across the country were found to underestimate the worth of all they do for their homes and families. When the actual median value of services was computed, a woman's contribution to the home was $34,256 versus $19,322 for men. Men were 9 percent more likely to overestimate their contribution by $30,000 or more. The person most likely to underestimate her worth is the mother of a minor child—her computed worth is $44,913 while her perceived worth is $29,000. Over half (52 percent) of these women underestimate their worth by at least $10,000; 36 percent do so by at least $30,000.
A nationwide survey issued by Citibank reveals that 38 percent of Americans report that they are more likely to resemble their mothers when it comes to their own financial behavior. Americans also cite Mom (35 percent) as the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), acting as the primary decision-maker within the household, while 30 percent name Dad. In addition, adults remember their mothers talking to them at an early age about money, more than the "the birds and the bees."
From the press release:
The survey, conducted by Hart Research Associates, found that when it comes to financial matters such as saving, spending, borrowing and investing, Americans are more likely to identify with their mother (38 percent) than their father (34 percent).
Americans are also more likely to recognize their mother as the household CFO: 35 percent cited Mom as the primary financial decision-maker in the family; 32 percent reported both parents shared the responsibility; and 30 percent named their father. In addition, 45 percent of Americans say their mothers were better at managing the family budget than their fathers (21 percent). And, when it comes to getting a bargain, half of Americans (50 percent) say their mother was better, compared to just 20 percent acknowledging their father.
The data in this chartbook describe women's experiences in the health care system, highlighting the differences between various sub groups of women, particularly those who are at risk for poor access to care, those who are low-income, and women of color.
From the introduction:
The data presented in this Women’s Health Care Chartbook are based on a nationally representative survey of 2,015 women ages 18 to 64 interviewed by telephone in the spring and summer of 2008. This survey builds on prior Kaiser Family Foundation surveys on women’s health, conducted in 2001 and 2004, when the economy was much stronger. This survey was conducted in the early days of the recession in 2008, and economic conditions have become much worse since the data were collected.
This chartbook provides the latest data on major areas of women’s health policy, including women’s health status, insurance coverage, their interaction with the health care delivery system, use of preventive services, access to care, and work and family health issues.
This report looks at the impacts of cash transfers (CTs) on gender dynamics both within households and communities. This report was commissioned because of the agencies’ concerns that while CTs, now being used in many different emergency contexts, are expected to benefit women and contribute towards their empowerment there was little evidence being collected to see whether this was in fact happening.
From the Executive Summary:
Power relations and gender roles within households and the community are culturally and geographically specific. The impact of the CTs on women depended very much on the setting. Overall, there were many positive benefits for women, including increased self esteem and confidence to handle money and an acceptance by men that women are capable of playing such a role. On the whole, intra-household relations improved as a result of the CTs targeting women and there were indications that some of these improvements may last beyond the length of the programme.
However, there were also clear challenges. Both the community implications of how the CTs were implemented and the effect of the CTs on traditional coping strategies were a significant worry for some beneficiaries. Community relations did not necessarily improve, and in some cases worsened, as a result of the programmes. The CTs also tended to reinforce rather than challenge women’s traditional household and social roles. CTs were perceived as helping women to simply perform their roles ‘better’. In this context, women are expected to carry the burden of food provision and to manage the payments responsibly, often in the face of multiple pressures and claims. Likewise male roles were imbued with negative stereotypes, which will have damaging effects on the potential for long-term changes in gender relations. Complex social dynamics, such as polygamy, was not accounted for and the distribution of food within households remained highly gendered and hierarchical.
In a key indicator of economic security, the percentage of Americans who report living paycheck to paycheck all or most of the time was up five points over 2010 to 49 percent. But the increase among low-income women is especially staggering: 77 percent report living paycheck to paycheck, a 17-point jump from last year. Other highlights include:
Seventy-one percent of women and 65 percent of men say the economic downturn had some or a great deal of impact on their families.
Nearly half of Americans (46 percent) remain concerned that they or someone in their household could be out of a job in the next 12 months.
Low-income women continue to feel the greatest impact from the downturn, with 80 percent saying it has had some or a great deal of impact compared with 73 percent of low-income men. Other groups experiencing a particularly strong impact are: Latinas (74 percent); single mothers (73 percent); and women without a college degree (74 percent).
Glamour has launched a “Tell Somebody” campaign to combat relationship violence. To provide current data on young women and relationship violence, the magazine also commissioned an exclusive Harris Interactive representative online survey of 2,542 woman ages 18 to 35, developed with counsel from the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (NRCDV), the National Network to End Domestic Violence, the National Domestic Violence Hotline, Casa Esperanza and the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence.
29% of women surveyed said they’d been in an abusive relationship.
24% of women in abusive relationships have not told anyone they’re being harmed
62% of women who reported they had been in these relationships said that having the support of a friend, family member or coworker helped them “get through the relationship safely.”
42% of women who were in an abusive relationship and told someone they were being hurt said doing so helped them get out.
Using federal statistics, this report provides a picture of women in America in five areas: demographic and family changes, education, employment, health, and crime and violence.
From the Foreword:
Each page of this report is full of the most up-to-date facts on the status of women. Of particular note are the following:
As the report shows, women have made enormous progress on some fronts. Women have not only caught up with men in college attendance but younger women are now more likely than younger men to have a college or a master’s degree. Women are also working more and the number of women and men in the labor force has nearly equalized in recent years. As women’s work has increased, their earnings constitute a growing share of family income.
Yet, these gains in education and labor force involvement have not yet translated into wage and income equity. At all levels of education, women earned about 75 percent of what their male counterparts earned in 2009. In part because of these lower earnings and in part because unmarried and divorced women are the most likely to have responsibility for raising and supporting their children, women are more likely to be in poverty than men. These economic inequities are even more acute for women of color.
Women live longer than men but are more likely to face certain health problems, such as mobility impairments, arthritis, asthma, depression, and obesity. Women also engage in lower levels of physical activity. Women are less likely than men to suffer from heart disease or diabetes. Many women do not receive specific recommended preventative care, and one out of seven women age 18-64 has no usual source of health care. The share of women in that age range without health insurance has also increased.
Women are less likely than in the past to be the target of violent crimes, including homicide. But women are victims of certain crimes, such as intimate partner violence and stalking, at higher rates than men.
U. S. Department of Commerce Economics and Statistics Administration and Executive Office of the President Office of Management and Budget