Gender Stat: Politics 2013 - Page 4

Sources & References

American Bar Association. “A Current Glance at Women in the Law – February 2013.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/marketing/women/current_glance_statistics_feb2013.authcheckdam.pdf

Anzia, Sarah F. and Christopher R. Berry. “The Jackie (and Jill) Robinson Effect: Why do Congresswomen Outperform Congressmen?” American Journal of Political Science, 55 (2011): 478-493. Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-5907.2011.00512.x/abstract

Brady, Henry E. and John E. McNulty. “Turning Out to Vote: The Costs of Finding and Getting to the Polling Pace.” American Political Science Review, 105 (2011): 115-134. Accessed December 30, 2013. 
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8239866

Center for American Progress. “A Dual Disenfranchisement: 2013 Update.” Accessed December 30, 2013. 
http://www.americanprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/ChenVoterTurnout-2.pdf

Center for American Progress. “Infographic: Where Are U.S. Women in 2013?” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/labor/news/2013/03/08/55678/infographic-where-are-u-s-women-in-2013/

Center for American Women and Politics. “Gender Differences in Voter Turnout.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/voters/documents/genderdiff.pdf

Center for American Women and Politics. “High-Level Appointments by President Obama.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/levels_of_office/Executive-ObamaAppts.php

Center for American Women and Politics. “Women in Elective Office 2003.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/levels_of_office/documents/elective03.pdf

Center for American Women and Politics. “Women in Elective Office 2013.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/levels_of_office/documents/elective.pdf

Center for American Women and Politics. “Women in the U.S. Congress 2013.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/levels_of_office/documents/cong.pdf

Center for American Women and Politics. “Women of Color in Elective Office 2013.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/fast_facts/levels_of_office/documents/color.pdf

Chiao, Joan Y., Nicholas E. Bowman, and Harleen Gill. “The Political Gender Gap: Gender Bias in Facial Inferences that Predict Voting Behavior.” PLoS One, (2008). Accessed December 13, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18974841

Congressional Research Service, “Membership of the 113th Congress: A Profile.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42964.pdf

Drutman, Lee. “How the Poorest Americans Dropped Out of Politics.” Pacific Standard, May 21, 2009. Accessed December 30, 2013. http://www.psmag.com/politics/poorest-americans-dropped-politics-3691/

Dunaway, Johanna, Regina G. Lawrence, Melody Rose, and Christopher R. Weber. “Traits versus Issues: How Female Candidates Shape Coverage of Senate and Gubernatorial Races,” Political Research Quarterly, 66 (2013): 715-726. Accessed December 13, 2013. http://prq.sagepub.com/content/66/3/715.abstract

Fowler, Linda L. and Jennifer L. Lawless. “Looking for Sex in All the Wrong Places: Press Coverage and the Electoral Fortunes of Gubernatorial Candidates.” Perspectives on Politics, (2009): 519-536. Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=6065656

Fox, Richard L. and Jennifer L. Lawless. “Enter the Arena? Gender and the Decision to Run for Office.” American Journal of Political Science, 48 (2004): 264-280. Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://dingo.sbs.arizona.edu/~ggoertz/qmir/fox_lawless2004.pdf

Freeman, Richard B. “What, Me Vote?” Social Inequality (2004). Accessed December 30, 2013. 
http://scholar.harvard.edu/freeman/publications/what-me-vote

Guide to Women Leaders. “Current Women Leaders.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/Current-Women-Leaders.htm

Heil, Emily and Al Kamen. “Obama’s Second-Term Cabinet: Fewer Women, Minorities.” Washington Post, May 2, 2013. Accessed December 13, 2013. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/in-the-loop/post/obamas-second-term-cabinet-fewer-women-minorities/2013/05/02/439c962c-b32f-11e2-9a98-4be1688d7d84_blog.html

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in National Parliaments: World Average.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/world.htm

Inter-Parliamentary Union. “Women in National Parliaments: World Classification.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm

Kahn, Kim Fridkin. The Political Consequences of Being a Woman: How Stereotypes Influence the Conduct and Consequences of Political Campaigns (1996). Accessed December 13, 2013. http://www.cup.columbia.edu/book/978-0-231-10303-9/

Lawless, Jennifer L. and Richard L. Fox. “Girls Just Wanna Not Run: The Gender Gap in Young Americans’ Political Ambition.” Accessed December 13, 2013. http://www.american.edu/spa/wpi/upload/Girls-Just-Wanna-Not-Run_Policy-Report.pdf

National Conference of State Legislatures. “Voter Identification Requirements.” Accessed December 30, 2013. 
http://www.ncsl.org/research/elections-and-campaigns/voter-id.aspx

National Association of Women Judges. “2013 Representation of United States State Court Women Judges.” Accessed December 30, 2013. http://www.nawj.org/us_state_court_statistics_2013.asp

National Women’s Political Caucus. “Statistics.” Accessed December 13, 013. http://www.nwpc.org/statistics

Nonprofit Vote. “America Goes to the Polls: Voter Participation Gaps in the 2012 Presidential Election.” Accessed December 30, 2013. http://www.nonprofitvote.org/documents/2013/03/america-goes-to-the-polls-2012.pdf

Okimoto, Tyler G. and Victoria L. Brescoll. “The Price of Power: Power Seeking and Backlash Against Female Politicians.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26 (2010): 923-936. Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://psp.sagepub.com/content/36/7/923

Phelan, Julie E. and Laurie A. Rudman. “Prejudice Toward Female Leaders: Backlash Effects and Women’s Impression Management Dilemma.” Social and Personality Psychology Compass, (2010): 807-820. Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00306.x/abstract

Piven, Frances Fox. Why Americans Still Don’t Vote: And Why Politicians Want It That Way (2000). Accessed December 30, 2013. http://www.beacon.org/productdetails.cfm?PC=1361

Quota Project. http://www.quotaproject.org/

Rosenfeld, David. “What Barriers Stand in Your Way to the Polls?” Pacific Standard, June 4, 2008. Accessed December 30, 2013. http://www.psmag.com/politics/what-barriers-stand-in-your-way-to-the-polls-4510/

Sanbonmatsu, Kira, Susan J. Carroll, and Debbie Walsh. “Poised to Run: Women’s Pathways to the State Legislatures.” Accessed December 13, 2013. http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/research/reports/PoisedtoRun.pdf

Schneider, Monica C. and Angela L. Bos. “Measuring Stereotypes of Female Politicians.” Political Psychology (2013): 1-22. Accessed December 13, 2013. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pops.12040/abstract?deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=&userIsAuthenticated=false

Sigelman, Lee, Carol K. Sigelman, and Christopher Fowler. “A Bird of a Different Feather? An Experimental Investigation of Physical Attractiveness and the Electability of Female Candidates.” Social Psychology Quarterly50 (1987): 32-43. Accessed December 13, 2013.
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/2786888?uid=3739840&uid=2&uid=4&uid=3739256&sid=21103207245023

Todorov, Alexander, Anesu N. Mandisodza, Amir Goren, and Crystal C. Hall. “Inference of Competence from Faces Predict Election Outcomes.” Science, 308 (2005): 1623-1626. Accessed December 13, 2013. 
https://psych.princeton.edu/psychology/research/todorov/pdf/Todorov_Science2005.pdf

U.S. Department of Justice. “The Voting Rights Act of 1965.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.justice.gov/crt/about/vot/intro/intro_b.php

U.S. Public Interest Research Groups. “Distorted Democracy: Post-Election Spending Analysis.” Accessed December 30, 2013. http://uspirg.org/reports/usp/distorted-democracy-post-election-spending-analysis

Uggen, Christopher and Jeff Manza. “Democratic Contradiction? Political Consequences of Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States.” American Sociological Review, 67 (2002): 777-803. Accessed December 30, 2013. 
http://as.nyu.edu/docs/IO/3858/Democratic_Contraction.pdf

University of Denver, Colorado Women’s College. “Benchmarking Women’s Leadership in the United States.” Accessed December 13, 2013. http://womenscollege.du.edu/bwl/report.pdf

Volden, Craig, Alan E. Wiseman, and Dana E. Wittmer. “When are Women More Effective Lawmakers Than Men?” American Journal of Political Science, 57 (2013): 326-341. Accessed December 13, 2013.  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ajps.12010/abstract

Volden, Craig, Alan E. Wiseman, and Dana E. Wittmer. “Women’s Issues and their Fates in Congress.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.batten.virginia.edu/sites/default/files/fwpapers/Volden%2C%20Wiseman%2C%20Wittmer%2C%20Women%27s_Issues_May_2013.pdf

Voter Participation Center. “The Rising American Electorate.” Accessed December 13, 2013.
http://www.voterparticipation.org/the-rising-american-electorate/

WCF Foundation. “Fast Facts about Women in Politics.” Accessed December 13, 2013. 
http://www.wcffoundation.org/pages/research/women-in-politics-statistics.html

World Economic Forum. “The Global Gender Gap Report 2013.” Accessed December 13, 2013.
http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2013/


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