Economic Development & Security

Women are active players driving the economy, nationally and globally. They are important breadwinners for their families, grow most of the world’s food and are entering the formal and informal sectors of the labor market in increasing numbers. Despite their enormous contributions, women are still largely absent from leadership positions and their voices and perspectives are often missing from economic policymaking at the local, regional, national and international levels. To promote their wellbeing, women need access to adequate income and quality education to support themselves and their families. Women still earn less than men and make up a disproportionate number of the poor, both nationally and globally. In the United States, women’s wellbeing and advancement depend on their access to basic services, opportunities and safety nets, such as paid sick leave, affordable child care and elder care, advanced education, health care and adequate housing. Explore the resources listed below, including Related Categories links, or use the Keyword Search for more information.

Expert Profile

Location: 
United States
33° 44' 56.382" N, 84° 23' 16.7352" W
Member Organizations: 

Beverly Guy Sheftall, Ph.D., is the founding director of the Women's Research and Resource Center and the Anna Julia Cooper Professor of Women's Studies at Spelman College.  She is also adjunct professor at Emory University's Institute for Women's Studies where she teaches graduate courses. At the age of sixteen, she entered Spelman College where she majored in English and minored in secondary education.  After graduation with honors, she attended Wellesley College for a fifth year of study in English.  In 1968, she entered Atlanta to pursue a master's degree in English; her thesis was entitled, "Faulkner's Treatment of Women in His Major Novels."  A year later she began her first teaching job in the Department of English at Alabama State University in Montgomery, Alabama.

Location

Atlanta, GA
United States
33° 44' 56.382" N, 84° 23' 16.7352" W

New Resources on Women’s Poverty and Health

URL: 
http://www.nwlc.org/details.cfm?id=3732&section=child%20and%20family%20support

The National Women’s Law Center (NWLC)

URL: 
http://www.nwlc.org

WOMEN’S EQUALITY FORUM: Daddy, can a man be Prime Minister?

By Gwendolyn Beetham*

When I was in graduate school in London, one of my professors told a cute story about his daughter, born during the Thatcher era, who as a small child had asked him whether a man could be Prime Minister. The point that my professor was trying to make was that having more women in positions of power does make a difference in how women’s roles are perceived by society at large.


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WOMEN’S EQUALITY FORUM: Achieving Political Equality by Living It

By Tonni Brodber*

Linda Basch: From your perspective, what is the unfinished work of women’s political equality?

Tonni Brodber: In the English-speaking Caribbean women’s participation in political leadership ranges from a high of 13% in Jamaica to a low of 0% in Belize, with many countries like St. Kitts and Nevis and St Lucia hovering at 6.7% and at 5.6% respectively. In the face of such paltry numbers, it almost pains me to say that it is my belief that the unfuinished work of women’s political equality is the lack of quality and diversity.


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Center for the Education of Women

The University of Michigan Center for the Education of Women (CEW) advances the personal, educational, career, professional and leadership potential of women. The services, programs, applied research, and action initiatives conducted by CEW promote inclusiveness and equity within the University, across the state and throughout the nation.

Founded in 1964, the Center for the Education of Women, within the University of Michigan, was one of the nation's first comprehensive, university-based centers focused on women.  Designed to serve the needs of women students as well as women returning to school or work, CEW (then known as the Center for the Continuing Education of Women) was founded with a three part mission of service, advocacy, and research. CEW maintains that mission today, serving University students, staff and faculty, community members, women and men, facing educational, employment or other life issues.

Contact

330 E. Liberty St.
Ann Arbor, MI 48104-2274
Ph. (734) 764-6005
Fx. (734) 998-6203
http://www.cew.umich.edu
cew.mail@umich.edu
contactcew@umich.edu

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Principal Staff

Gloria Thomas, Executive Director
Ph. (734) 764-7640
E-mail: gthomas@umich.edu

Wanlanda Ault, Fianance Assistant

Kristina Bee, Development and Scholarship Assistant

Jacqueline Bowman, Senior Counselor and Program Specialist

Eilisha Dermont, Communications Manager
Ph. (734) 764-6277
E-mail: edermont@umich.edu

Kirsten Elling, Associate Director for Counseling, Programs and Services

Connie Hansen, Assistant to the Director
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Featured Events

Employment Opportunities

Projects & Campaigns

RESEARCH

Center researchers are currently analyzing the results of the Faculty Work-Life Study, a joint project of the Center for the Education of Women and the UM Center for Research on Learning and Teaching. The survey of UM faculty included questions about climate, workload, sources of satisfaction and stress, and incorporate AAUDI questions for comparison to similar institutions.  This project also provides comparison to the 1998 FWLS.

Contingent Faculty in a Tenure Track World - CEW researchers held focus groups with full- and part-time non-tenure track (NTT) faculty at twelve research universities across the country. In total, we conducted 24 ninety-minute focus groups with a total of 343 full- and part-time NTT faculty. A report of the project is available  and a video based on the project explores the responses of focus group members. The project was funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

The National Clearinghouse on Academic Worklife  (www.academicworklife.org) combines into a single website information resources and community discussions to support those who study or participate in academic work.  Up to date articles and policy examples are available on topics ranging from family-friendly benefits, tenure attainment, and faculty satisfaction to policy development, productivity, and demographics.  An email newsletter is also available free to subscribers. This clearinghouse was developed  through a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.

The Dual Career Ladder Project, funded by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, resulted in several publications based on the findings of our institutional survey of U.S. institutions of higher education.  highlighting the numbers, working conditions and perceived contributions of non tenure track faculty.  These are available on the CEW website.

LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT

CEW’s Advanced Leadership Program offers middle management University of Michigan staff, recommended by their supervisors, an eight-month skill development workshop series and accompanying change management project.  This program has been offered annually for nearly 10 years. 

 

Focus on Leadership, addresses the need for leadership development and training for staff not yet in key middle-management positions or not yet ready for the more extensive Advanced Leadership Program.  Offered to approximately 30 individuals annually, this program offers participants an introduction to leadership concepts while it assists participants in developing an identity as a potential leader.

 

Emerging Leaders Iniative  CEW is currently developing an innovative nine-month program for emerging leaders (those with less than 6 years in their career fields) over the course of two years. The program will focus on women from a specific Michigan urban region, combining those from the private and the non-profit sectors.  The program combines in-person sessions, career coaching by senior leaders, and ongoing support and learning using web 2.0 tools including social media and online learning. 

PROGRAMS

CEW offers about 50 programs each term, covering topics such as careers, career change and job searching, work-life balance, leadership development, and focused programs for graduate students and post-docs.  In addition, CEW brings special events and speakers to the campus and community. 

In addition, CEW leads three support networks for University of Michigan women: Women of Color in the Academy Project and Junior Women Faculty Network for women faculty and the Women of Color Task Force for women staff.  These networks offer support, mentoring, and learning opportunities for participants.  The Task Force delivers a campus-wide career conference annually, with about 550 participants. 

CEW provides free counseling to students, faculty and staff of the University as well as to women and men in the community.  Each year over 1,000 adults are seen by CEW’s professional counselors.


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Reports & Resources

2012
 
"Factors Contributing to Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction among Non-Tenure-Track Faculty" By Jean Waltman, Inger Bergom, Carol Hollenshead, Jeanne Miller, and Louise August. The Journal of Higher Education, May/June 2012 83:3.  
 
Success for Nontraditional Students at Elite Institution, On Campus with Women v.40, no 3. By Gloria D. Thomas and Carol Hollenshead
 
2010
 
 
2009
 
 
"Satisfaction and Discontent: Voices of Non-Tenure-Track Faculty," By Inger Bergom and Jean Waltman. In On Campus With Women, vol 37, #3, 2009.
 
2008
 
Women of Color Faculty at the University of Michigan: Recruitment, Retention, and Campus Climate. Aimee Cox, PhD, Research Investigator Center for the Education of Women, CEW Jean Campbell Research Scholar (Executive Summary)
 
 
 
Developing a Transparent Tenure Process (Resources for Deans and Chairs)
 
Enabling Junior Faculty Success (Resources for Deans and Chairs)
 
2007
 

Post-Apartheid South Africa: Creating Critically Leaderful Schools that Make a Difference, 
Juliet Perumal, University of the Witwatersrand (South Africa) and CEW Visting Scholar, 2007.

How American Men's Participation in Housework and Child-care Affects Wives' Careers. 
Renge Jibu, CEW Visiting Scholar

 
 
 
2006
Attrition Among Female Tenure-Track Faculty, paper presented at AIR, May 18, 2006, Louise August
 
A Commitment to Volunteerism. Louise August, Carol Hollenshead and Sally Schmall
 

The Gender Impact of the Proposed Michigan Civil Rights Initiative: Research Brief. 
Susan Kaufmann

 

It Isn't Over: The Continuing Under-Representation of Female Faculty, paper presented at AIR, 
May 18, 2006, Louise August.

 
Non Tenure Track Faculty: The Landscape at U.S. Institutions of Higher Education: Full Report. Includes the Executive Summary as well as tables and charts reporting analyses of the survey data.
 
 
 
 
 
 
2005
 
 
 
 

Tenure Clock, Modified Duties, and Sick Leave Policies: Creating 'A Network of Support and Understanding' for University of Michigan Faculty Women During Pregnancy and Childbirth, 
Jean Waltman and Louise August

"Gender, Family, and Flexibility in Academia" Jeanne E. Miller and Carol Hollenshead in ChangeNovember/December 2005, pp.58-62
 
2004
 
"Developing and Implementing Work – Family Policies for Faculty," Beth Sullivan, Carol Hollenshead and Gilia Smith in Academe: Bulletin of the American Association of University Professors. November-December 2004.
 
2003
 
The 2003 Michigan Women's Leadership Index: Executive Summary, produced jointly by CEW and the Detroit Women's Economic Club.
 
Women at the University of Michigan: A Statistical Report on the Status of Women Students, Staff and Faculty on the Ann Arbor Campus, compiled by staff from CEW, Human Resource Records and Information Services, and the Office of Budget and Planning. (Replaced by 2010 Report)
 
2002
 
 
Sexing the Single Girl. Deborah Siegel, CEW Visiting Scholar
 
“Work/family policies in higher education: Survey data and case studies of policy implementation" by Carol S. Hollenshead, Beth Sullivan, Gilia C. Smith, Louise August, and Susan Hamilton is a chapter of The Challenge of Balancing Faculty Careers and Family Work, New Directions in Higher Education no. 130, 2005, 41-65.
 
2001
 
 
2000
 
 
Women and Higher Education 2000: Michigan: a "Smart State" for Women? Susan Kaufmann, Sally Sharp, Jeanne E. Miller, and Jean Waltman

Women and the MBA: Gateway to Opportunity­ (Findings) A joint report from CEW, Catalyst, and the University of Michigan Business School 
Women and the MBA. The full report is available through Catalyst.

Before 2000
 
Former Women Faculty: Reasons for Leaving One Research University. Stacy A. Wenzel and Carol Hollenshead 1998

The Michigan Faculty Work-Life Study 1999. Executive SummaryComplete Report
.


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Center News

Opportunities, Grants & Fellowships

Visiting Scholar Program

The Visiting Scholar Program is an opportunity for scholars to pursue research projects relevant to women using the vast resources available through the Center for the Education of Women (CEW) and the University of Michigan. Scholars must hold a Ph.D. or equivalent degree. A scholar's stay at the Center can range from one to twelve months, as appropriate to the scholar's research needs. Visiting Scholars prepare a working paper based upon their research, which is published as part of the Center's series of occasional papers.

Robin Wright Graduate Fellowship

The Center for the Education of Women announces the Robin Wright Graduate Fellowship with a grant of up to $3,200. The fund will support research by a graduate student from the Islamic World or Africa matriculating in the Rackham Graduate School.


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National Women's Law Center

The National Women's Law Center was founded in 1972 as a non-profit advocacy organization working to advance the progress of women, girls, and families with emphasis on employment, education, reproductive rights and health, and family issues. The Center has been at the forefront of the major legal and public policy initiatives in this country to improve the lives of women: educating state, local, and federal policy-makers as well as members of the public about critical women's issues; building and leading coalitions; litigating ground-breaking cases and informing landmark Supreme Court decisions. The Center is a sponsor of human rights, helping to resonate women's voices through the minds of public policy-makers, advocates, and the public alike.

Contact

11 Dupont Circle, NW
Washington, DC 20036
Ph. (202) 588-5180
Fx. (202) 588-5185
http://www.nwlc.org/
info@nwlc.org


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Principal Staff

Nancy Duff Campbell, Co-President
E-mail: campbell@nwlc.org

Marcia Greenberger, Co-President
E-mail: mgreenberger@nwlc.org

Joan Entmacher, Vice President for Family Economic Security

Fatima Goss Graves, Vice President for Education and Employment

Niesa Brateman Halpern, Vice President of Administration and Finance

Emily Martin, Vice President and General Counsel

Karen Schneider, Vice President for Communications

Judy Waxman, Vice President for Health and Reproductive Rights
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Featured Events

Employment Opportunities

Projects & Campaigns

 
The child care needs of American families have increased sharply as women with children enter the paid workforce in growing numbers and as recognition grows about the importance of high-quality early learning experiences to help children get a strong start. We're working to create and strengthen policies to improve the quality, affordability, and accessibility of child care and early education.

 
Women and girls have come a long way since the enactment of Title IX – the federal civil rights law that prohibits sex discrimination in education. Still, far too many students are denied equal educational opportunities, particularly low-income and minority students. We're working to eliminate and prevent barriers, including discrimination, to students' success in school.
 
 
Women still face discrimination in the workplace, and they still earn, on average, only 77 cents for every dollar earned by men. We're working to achieve equality in the workplace, including equal pay, the elimination of harassment and other forms of sex discrimination, and the removal of barriers to nontraditional careers for women.

 
Women's health is endangered by limited access to health care, and reproductive rights are under concerted attack. We're working to protect reproductive rights, guarantee health care for women and families, and promote policies to advance and protect women's health.

 
When federal judges are not committed to enforcing basic rights critical to women, hard-won legal rights are drastically eroded. We're working to promote a fair and independent judiciary and supporting nominees who have demonstrated a commitment to equal opportunity for women and families.
 
 
Women are at greater risk of poverty than men at all stages of their lives because of ongoing employment discrimination and greater responsibilities for unpaid caregiving. We're working to strengthen income and work support programs to increase economic security for women and their families.
 
 
Women’s lower lifetime earnings and longer lifespan put them at far greater risk of poverty as they age than men. We’re working to increase women’s retirement security by strengthening Social Security and supporting pension and savings protections.

 
While the wealthiest Americans have benefited for years from tax cuts and tax loopholes, investments vital to women and their families have been shortchanged. We're working for a fair and progressive tax system that raises the revenue needed to meet our shared priorities and expand opportunity for all.


In the past half century, a commitment to principles of nondiscrimination and equality has transformed the lives of women and their families and the nation as a whole. But much remains to be done to ensure that the promise of equal opportunity is fulfilled in women's lives. We're working to realize a broad vision for progress for women and their families.

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Reports & Resources

For all publications, click here.


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Center News

Opportunities, Grants & Fellowships

Public Policy Fellowship

The fellow will work on a variety of issues, which may include: tax and budget policy, child care, income support, retirement security, education reform, equal education and employment opportunity, barriers for low-wage workers, and education

Employment Fellow

The fellow will focus on promoting opportunities for women and girls in school and at work. The issues may include improving graduation rates for girls, with a particular focus on low income girls, girls of color, and teen parents; addressing gender-based harassment and bullying; increasing gender equity in athletics, removing barriers for women in nontraditional education and job training; advocating for workplace fairness and equal pay. Responsibilities may include researching and analyzing policy and legal issues and drafting a variety of materials, such as memos, fact sheets, reports, comments on regulations, legal briefs.

Health Policy Fellow

As part of the Center’s work on women and health reform, the Health Fellow will work on a range of issues related to women’s access to health care, with particular emphasis on access to comprehensive and affordable health coverage for low-income women. Responsibilities will include gathering, analyzing and synthesizing research and data from a variety of sources; analyzing policy proposals; drafting reports and other written materials, and working with national and state-based coalitions on legislative and regulatory matters.


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Legal Momentum

Legal Momentum is the nation's oldest legal defense and education fund dedicated to advancing the rights of all women and girls. For more than 40 years, Legal Momentum has made historic contributions through litigation and public policy advocacy to advance economic and personal security for women. Our current programmatic work is focused on five strategic goals: increasing pathways into quality employment opportunities, protecting workplace rights of vulnerable populations, strengthening the safety net, expanding rights, justice, and services for victims of violence, and promoting gender equity and challenging gender bias.

Contact

395 Hudson Street
New York, NY 10014
Ph. 212-925-6635
Fx. 212-226-1066
http://www.legalmomentum.org
news@legalmomentum.org


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Principal Staff

Elizabeth Grayer, President
E-mail: egrayer@legalmomentum.org

Sandra Brown Basso, Coordinator, Executive Department
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Featured Events

Employment Opportunities

Projects & Campaigns

Poverty

Women and Poverty: The poverty rate for adult women has been substantially higher than for adult men in every year since official poverty measurement began. Legal Momentum is proposing policy solutions that will alleviate women and children’s poverty.

Violence

Women face violence at home, on the street, and in the workplace. Notwithstanding one of Legal Momentum’s signature achievements – passage of the Violence Against Women Act—supportive services, rights and protective measures for victims remain inadequate.

Workplace Rights

Nearly 50 years after sex discrimination in employment was prohibited, women continue to be paid less, face sexual harassment, and confront barriers to hiring and promotion. These challenges are severe for women in “non-traditional” jobs. Legal Momentum works to protect the workplace rights of women, especially vulnerable populations.

Courts, the Justice System, and Women

Legal Momentum has expertise and resources across a wide range of areas related to discrimination, gender equity, and gender bias. Ranging from sexual and reproductive rights and teen dating violence to gender bias in the courts, Legal Momentum continues to champion the rights of women and girls and to work to eradicate harmful stereotypes and policies shaped by bias while promoting policies and practices that reflect the realities of women’s lives, and advancing their rights under the law. 

Education and Training Equity

Women continue to hold jobs with lower salaries and fewer benefits. They face barriers to employment in job sectors from which they have long been excluded. Job training programs for both adults and students too often reinforce these trends, failing to provide women and girls with competitive skills and a path into non-traditional, well-compensated jobs.


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Reports & Resources

Click here for all publications.


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Center News

Opportunities, Grants & Fellowships

 Internship Program

Legal interns assist in developing litigation with legal research, prospective client interviews, drafting pleadings, and other aspects of litigation, and develop public education and policy advocacy materials on a range of women's rights legal issues. Positions are available in our New York City and Washington, D.C. offices.
Legal Momentum accepts applications from undergraduate (non-legal) students, in New York City and Washington D.C., for internship positions in public policy and advocacy, communications and marketing, accounting, development, and other non-profit management areas. Positions are generally unpaid and students are expected to have funding from their schools, or to be enrolled in a course which awards academic credit for the internship experience. Internship applications are accepted throughout the year for at least one-semester of service. 

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Institute for Women’s Policy Research

The Institute for Women’s Policy Research conducts rigorous research and disseminates its findings to address the needs of women, promote public dialog, and strengthen families, communities, and societies.
 
It is the leading think tank in the United States focusing primarily on domestic women’s issues.Founded in 1987, IWPR’s reports and other informational resources have informed policies and programs across the country and internationally, in each of its key program areas: Employment, Education, & Economic Change, Democracy & Society, Poverty, Welfare, & Income Security

Contact

1200 18th Street NW
Washington, DC 20036
Ph. (202) 785-5100
Fx. (202) 833-4362
http://www.iwpr.org
iwpr@iwpr.org


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Principal Staff

Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D., President
E-mail: hhartmann@iwpr.org

Barbara Gault, Ph.D., Executive Director & Vice President
E-mail: gault@iwpr.org
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Featured Events

Employment Opportunities

Projects & Campaigns

Employment, Education, and Economic Change
 
 
IWPR examines the quality of jobs across a diverse range of workers and job types, with an emphasis on low-wage employment. Our research explores access to employment benefits such as paid leave, pensions, and health insurance, as well as the adequacy of governmental work supports including Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) and Social Security. The area also covers the use and value of "family-friendly" policies such as paid time off to care for sick family members, flextime, telecommuting, and child care assistance.
 
 
IWPR tracks the gender wage gap over time in a series of fact sheets updated annually. According to our research, if change continues at the same slow pace as it has done for the past fifty years, it will take almost another fifty—or until 2056—for women to finally reach pay parity. IWPR’s project on sex and race discrimination in the workplace shows that outright discrimination in pay, hiring, or promotions continues to be a significant feature of working life.
 
 
Recognizing the necessity of higher education in increasing women’s earning power, IWPR’s Student Parent Success Initiative (SPSI) seeks to improve access and graduation for low-income student parents—particularly mothers—in college settings. Specifically, through a combination of research and outreach activities that aim to encourage information-sharing, educate leaders and policy makers, and improve public policies and resources, SPSI works to raise awareness about both the challenges and promise represented by parents seeking postsecondary degrees.
 
 
IWPR publishes occasional analyses of the impact of the business cycle on women’s employment outcomes. Between December 2007 and June 2009, the U.S. economy was in the worst recession since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Because much of the slowdown has occurred in traditionally male fields such as manufacturing and construction—while a few traditionally female fields such as health and education have shown job growth or minimal job loss—many reports have focused on the job losses among men in the labor force.
 
Democracy and Society
 
 
IWPR’s “Status of Women” reports are a unique source of comprehensive information on women. IWPR has analyzed data on a wide range of indicators at the local, state, national, and international levels, including demographics, economic security, educational attainment, reproductive rights, political participation, civic engagement, and access to health care and work supports. To date, IWPR has released reports on each U.S. state and the District of Columbia, in addition to several city/area reports, and a series of reports and a toolkit on Women in the Middle East and North Africa. Each report offers policy recommendations shaped by the research findings for that state or city/area.
 
 
Despite the growing number of immigrant women in the United States, their interests and concerns are often overlooked in public policy debates. IWPR’s research finds that women immigrants experience a number of challenges, such as reproductive health issues, domestic violence, and poor job quality within traditionally female positions. Many immigrant women—especially those who lack legal status—also face barriers to receiving support or services. To help address these challenges and raise the visibility of immigrant women’s contributions and concerns, IWPR conducts research on the social and economic circumstances of immigrant women and the resources available to them.
 
 
With the goal of informing policy on the issues of social programs, economic security, and the work environment for women, IWPR researches women’s leadership in unions as well as the impact of unionization on employment, income, and benefits overall and in different industries. IWPR’s recent and current work on women and unions provide analyses of labor markets for the communications and retail food industries, and guidelines for promoting women’s leadership in unions.
 
 
On an ongoing basis, IWPR continues to identify successful strategies to encourage women’s participation in civic and political life. From 2003-2008, IWPR conducted research with female activists working in a range of contexts—including interfaith organizations, unions, and secular social justice movements—about their experiences in taking on public leadership roles and the sources of motivation that inspired their involvement in this work.
 
Poverty, Welfare, and Economic Security
 
 
IWPR is a leading national resource on women’s income security—especially the economic security of women in retirement and the possible effects of Social Security changes on women.
 
 
Around the world, women tend to be in poverty at greater rates than men. The United Nations reported in 1997 that 70 percent of 1.3 billion people in poverty worldwide are women, while American Community Survey data from 2009 tells us that 55.2 percent of the 42.9 million people living in poverty in the United States are women and girls. Women’s higher likelihood of living in poverty exists within every major racial and ethnic group within the U.S. Among people in poverty, 16.7 percent are younger women ages 18 to 34, compared to 12.3 percent men in that age range.Older women are also much more likely than older men to live in poverty.IWPR has served as a resource on women’s poverty issues since its founding in 1987.
 
 
IWPR researchers began studying women’s circumstances along the U.S. Gulf Coast almost immediately after Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and were among the first to respond with that focus. IWPR’s current research with women in the post-Katrina Gulf region suggests that improvements to policy and planning can help with everyday life, as well as in emergencies or disasters.
 
Work and Family
 
 
Student parents make up 26 percent of community college students and many have young children, yet IWPR's research shows that child care available only meets a tiny fraction of the need. Improving child care access is not only about improving access to sources of care and education outside the home, but also requires increasing parents' ability to care for their own children. Significant investments in children's well-being in the early years has enormous long-term payoffs. IWPR has worked both national and state levels—in California, Kansas, Illinois, and the District of Columbia—to estimate the costs of implementing early care and education expanses. IWPR also developed a "how-to" manual demonstrating how other states can adapt the model to serve their specific policy needs.
 
 
In a 2009 briefing paper, IWPR reported that employees who attended work while infected with H1N1 are estimated to have caused the infection of as many as 7 million co-workers (according to data compiled by IWPR from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Bureau of Labor Statistics). Public opinion tends to support PSD policies as demonstrated by a 2010 survey by IWPR. The survey of registered voters, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, found that more than two-thirds of registered voters (69 percent) endorse laws to provide paid sick days.
 
 
In 2008, IWPR released a report focusing on statutory employment rights aimed at increasing workers’ ability to change their working hours and arrangements in 20 high-income countries. Statutory Routes to Workplace Flexibility in Cross-National Perspective includes statutes providing a general right to alternative work arrangements as well as those targeting work-family reconciliation, lifelong learning, and gradual retirement, and argues that an explicit right to request flexible working can play an important role in preparing the U.S. economy for the future.
 
Health and Safety
 
 
IWPR’s research on women’s health and safety informs policy decisions by identifying gender and racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes and access to health care services in addition to highlighting opportunities for improvement. IWPR’s reports and resources discuss a range of policy issues including access to paid sick days, the relationship between women’s health and socio-economic status, cost-benefit analyses of paid sick days provision, and rates of breastfeeding.

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Reports & Resources

The Status of Women and Girls in Colorado
by Cynthia Hess, Ph.D., Ariane Hegewisch, Youngmin Yi, Claudia Williams, and Justine Augeri(June 2013)
 
This report provides critical data and analyzes areas of progress for women and girls in Colorado as well as places where progress has slowed or stalled. It examines a range of interconnected issues affecting the lives of women and girls in Colorado, including economic security and poverty, employment and earnings, educational opportunity, personal safety, and women’s leadership. In addition to discussing the current status of women and girls, the report tracks progress over the last two decades by comparing findings with those from earlier status of women reports by The Women’s Foundation of Colorado and Girls Count (1994) and the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2000). The 2013 Status of Women and Girls in Colorado report also analyzes how the circumstances of women and girls differ across Colorado’s regions and how women and girls in the state fare compared with their counterparts in the nation as a whole.
 
Moderate Job Growth for Both Women and Men: Unemployment Rate for Single Mothers Declines to 9.9 Percent
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (June 2013)
 
According to the IWPR analysis of the June employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), job growth for both women and men improved in May compared to the previous month. Of the 175,000 total jobs added to nonfarm payrolls, women gained 82,000 jobs (47 percent) while men gained 93,000 jobs (53 percent). For the first time since December 2008, the unemployment rate for women who head households without a spouse fell below ten percent.
 
Valuing Good Health in Oregon: The Costs and Benefits of Earned Sick Days
by Claudia William, Jasmin Griffin, and Jeffrey Hayes (May 2013)
 
This briefing paper uses data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Oregon Public Health Division, and the U.S. Census Bureau to evaluate costs and benefits of Oregon’s House Bill 3390. It estimates how much time off Oregon workers would use under the proposed policy and the costs to employers for that sick time. This analysis also uses findings from previous peer-reviewed research to estimate cost-savings associated with the proposed policy, through reduced turnover, reduced spread of contagious disease in the workplace, prevention of productivity losses from employees working while sick, minimized nursing-home stays, and reduced norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes. The study is one of a series of analyses by IWPR examining the effects of earned sick days policies.
 
Making Research Count for Women: Launching the Next 25 Years
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (May 2013)
 
The Gendered Dynamics of Income Security: How Social Science Research Can Identify Pathways Out of Poverty and Toward Economic Security
by Courtney Kishbaugh and Jeffrey Hayes, Ph.D.(May 2013)
 
The Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) addressed issues of women, poverty and income security issues from its beginnings. IWPR’s first publication on these topics, Low-Wage Jobs and Workers: Trends and Options for Change (published in 1989), finds a growing share of adults working in low-wage jobs and a growing share of families relying on low-wage work for a major share of family income. It also finds that women and people of color are far more likely to work in low-wage jobs than white males. Federal or federally-funded data sets analyzed for the study included the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Panel Study on Income Dynamics (PSID). Low-Wage Jobs and Workers, a report funded by the U.S. Department of Labor and jointly disseminated with the non-profit Women Work! (then the National Displaced Homemakers Network), became the first of many influential policy pieces centered on poverty and income security. Since then, IWPR has continued to expand its research on poverty issues, focusing primarily on the topics of Social Security and older women’s economic security, welfare reform and its impact on women and children, the impact of unemployment on low-income women and their families, and the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in the Gulf Coast region. IWPR’s work has shed light on the experiences and needs of particularly vulnerable and underserved communities, inspired national and international conversations about these issues, and informed policy change.
 
The Truth in the Data: How Quantifying Women’s Labor Market Experiences Changes the Conversation about the Economy
by Ariane Hegewisch, Maxwell Matite, and Youngmin Yi (May 2013)
 
From the outset, IWPR has highlighted the wage gap as a key indicator of women’s economic security and gender (in)equality in the workplace. Fact sheets on the overall gender wage gap were published in IWPR’s first years and document how much the earnings ratio between men and women changed over time, as well as how earnings for different groups of women varied over this period of time. From 1996 onwards, the Institute’s research program on the Status of Women in the States has made these data available on a state-by-state basis, including in the report Women's Economic Status in the States: Wide Disparities by Race, Ethnicity, and Region (published in 2004). IWPR also provides state-by-state wage data in Femstats, a section of its website, in spreadsheet form. IWPR’s research has also linked trends in the wage gap to policy developments, changes in the economy, and ongoing changes in women’s lives. Such trends as later marriage, reduced fertility, gains in education, the growth of low-wage jobs and contingent work in the U.S. economy, and changes in the minimum wage, equal employment opportunity enforcement, and collective bargaining all affect women’s opportunities in the labor market, including their labor force participation and the amount of sex segregation they face in employment. IWPR’s studies have ranged from detailed examinations of specific industries to analyses of trends affecting the entire economy.
 
Investing in Success: How Quality Early Child Care, Education, and Workforce Training Improve the Well-Being of Girls and Women
by Holly Firlein, Barbara Gault, Ph.D., and Bethany Nelson (May 2013)
 
Recognizing that education is the gateway to opportunity, the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) has been a significant source of research on education and training, including work on early care and education, girls' experiences in the K-12 system, high quality workforce development opportunities, and postsecondary attainment. Its work has explored the importance of education for improving women's earnings, the importance of access to quality early care and education for mothers’ labor force outcomes, methods for improving job quality among early care and education providers, the role of child care in spurring and sustaining economic development, the importance of low-income women's access to postsecondary education as a poverty reduction tool, strategies for increasing the success of student parents in college through providing child care and other supports, and inceasing women's representation in higher paying, traditionally male careers such as in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields.
 
Enhancing the Status of Women: How Engaging Women in Leadership Creates a More Inclusive Democracy and Improves Women’s Lives
by Elyse Shaw, Drew McCormick, Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D., and Barbara Gault, Ph.D. (May 2013)
 
The Institute for Women’s Policy Research has been at the forefront of research on issues and policies that affect women’s continued participation and leadership in society and politics. Through its analysis of the issues of greatest importance to women in society, IWPR has greatly contributed to social and policy changes. The research done by IWPR in the area of democracy and society across the years has shown the ways in which American society benefits from the advancement of women in leadership positions and women’s increased civic and political engagement. IWPR’s research also highlights policy changes that would help women achieve greater equity. IWPR continues to work both internationally and domestically to provide relevant data on issues of importance to women’s lives and has disseminated its research through various conferences to ensure that advocates and policymakers alike have the tools to enable them to participate in making policy changes that benefit women and their families.
 
Health, Safety, Violence, and Disaster: How Economic Analysis Improves Outcomes for Women and Families
by Susan Martin, Ph.D. and Youngmin Yi (May 2013)
 
IWPR’s women’s health and safety efforts highlight the social and economic aspects of health, safety, and security issues. Over the past quarter century, the Institute has addressed women’s access to health insurance, the costs and benefits of preventive health services, reproductive health and rights, including the economic benefits of economic freedom, and the link between women’s socioeconomic status and health. IWPR’s examinations of safety issues have drawn attention to domestic violence as well as the effects of terrorism and disasters on women’s well-being. Its research has informed policy decisions by identifying both the limitations on access to health care services and ways to expand access, as well as the gender and racial/ethnic disparities in health outcomes. The Institute’s reports and resources have addressed a range of policy issues such as access to paid sick days including analyses of the health benefits of providing paid sick-days, breastfeeding protections under the Affordable Care Act, and in-home services for the elderly and others who need long-term care. For example, IWPR’s fact sheets and briefing papers include a 1994 analysis of the proposed Clinton health care reform o access to health insurance for women of color, a policy update on abortion since the passage of Roe v. Wade, published in 2003, and an estimate in 2012 of potential benefits and cost savings, focused on savings from reduced emergency room use, anticipated with the adoption of mandatory paid sick days in New York City.
 
Maternity, Paternity, and Adoption Leave in the United States
by Yuko Hara and Ariane Hegewisch (May 2013)
 
The United States is one of only four countries globally, and the only high-income country, without a statutory right to paid maternity leave for employees. In all but a few states, it is up to the employer to decide whether to provide paid leave. This briefing paper summarizes employees’ legal rights in relation to pregnancy, childbirth and adoption, and nursing breaks, and examines how far employers are voluntarily moving to provide paid parental leave beyond basic legal rights. It draws on three data sources: leave benefits offered by Working Mother magazine’s “100 Best Companies,” the Family and Medical Leave Act in 2012 Survey, and the National Compensation Survey. This briefing paper finds that the large majority of the “100 Best Companies” provides paid maternity leave, and many provide paid leave for adoption or paternity leave, although only a small minority provides pay during the full 12 weeks of FMLA leave. Among employers more broadly, a third (35 percent) of employees work for an employer offering paid maternity leave, and a fifth (20 percent) paid paternity leave, according to the FMLA 2012 Survey. According to the National Compensation Survey, only 12 percent of employees in the United States have access to paid leave for any care of family members (newborns, adopted children, or ill children or adults). Lower paid workers are least likely to have access to paid leave. International research suggests that the introduction of a statutory right to paid leave for parents would improve the health and economic situations of women and children and would promote economic growth.
 
Access to Earned Sick Days in Oregon
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (May 2013)
 
An analysis by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) reveals that about 596,800 private sector employees in Oregon lack even a single earned sick day. Access to earned sick days promotes healthy work environments by reducing the spread of illness,1,2 increasing productivity,3 and supporting work and family balance.4 Earned sick days allow people to take time off work to recover from illness and to tend to family members’ health without the fear of lost pay or other negative consequences. This briefing paper presents estimates of lack of earned sick days access rates in Oregon by occupation, by sex, race and ethnicity, personal annual earnings, and work schedule through analysis of government data sources, including the 2010–2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the 2009–2011 American Community Survey (ACS).
 
Job Growth Improves for Women in April 2013; Men Gained Fewer Jobs
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (May 2013)
 
According to the IWPR analysis of the May employment report from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), job growth for women improved in April compared to the previous month. Of the 165,000 total jobs added to nonfarm payrolls, women gained 117,000 jobs (71 percent) while men gained 48,000 jobs (29 percent).
 
Valuing Good Health in Vermont: The Costs and Benefits of Earned Health Care Time
by Claudia Williams with assistance from Jasmin Griffin and Jeffrey Hayes (April 2013)
 
The briefing paper uses data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Vermont Department of Health, and the U.S. Census Bureau to evaluate costs and benefits of Vermont’s H.208. It estimates how much time off Vermont workers would use under the proposed policy and the costs to employers for that sick time. This analysis also uses findings from previous peer-reviewed research to estimate cost-savings associated with the policy, through reduced turnover, reduced spread of contagious disease in the workplace, prevention of productivity losses from employees working while sick, minimized nursing-home stays, and reduced norovirus outbreaks in nursing homes. The study is one of a series of analyses by IWPR examining the effects of earned health care time policies.
 
The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation
by Ariane Hegewisch and Maxwell Matite (April 2013)
 
Women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in nearly all occupations, whether they work in occupations predominantly done by women, occupations predominantly done by men, or occupations with a more even mix of men and women. During 2012, median weekly earnings for female full-time workers were $691, compared with $854 per week for men, a gender wage ratio of 80.9 percent (Table 1; a gender wage gap of 19.1 percent).1 Added to the gender wage gap within occupations is the gender wage gap between occupations. Male-dominated occupations tend to pay more than female-dominated occupations at similar skill levels, particularly in jobs that require higher educational levels.2 Tackling occupational segregation is an important part of eliminating the gender wage gap.
 
Job Growth Slows for Both Women and Men
by The Institute for Women's Policy Research (April 2013)
 
At Current Pace of Progress, Wage Gap for Women Expected to Close in 2057
by Institute for Women's Policy Research (April 2013)
 
Women and the Care Crisis: Valuing In-Home Care in Policy and Practice
by Cynthia Hess, Ph.D., (April 2013)
 
The paper suggests that to improve the quality of in-home care jobs, address the industry’s anticipated labor shortage, and ensure that high-quality care is available in the United States, it is necessary to increase the value attributed to care work through critical changes in public policies and practices. These changes would benefit not only the women and men who are care workers or recipients, but also the nation overall. As a sector in which job growth is especially rapid, the care industry is integral to the U.S. economy; as a result, any changes that help to fill the gap in this industry and improve conditions for its workforce will strengthen the nation’s economy as a whole.
 
Quality Employment for Women in the Green Economy: Industry, Occupation, and State-by-State Job Estimates
by Ariane Hegewisch, Jeff Hayes, Ph.D., Tonia Bui, Anlan Zhang (April 2013)
 
This report provides the first-ever estimates of women’s employment in the green economy, state-by-state, by industry, and by occupation. The analysis draws on the U.S. Census Bureau’s American Community Survey; the Brookings-Battelle Clean Economy database; and the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics Green Goods and Services survey. The report examines women’s share of employment in the occupations predicted to see the highest growth in the green economy and includes two alternative state-by-state estimates for growth in green jobs. Focusing on investments in green buildings and retrofits, the report includes a state-by-state analysis of employment in key construction occupations by age, race, ethnicity, and gender. This report was funded by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation’s Sustainable Employment in a Green US Economy (SEGUE) Program. It is the first of a series of publications investigating strategies for improving women’s access to quality employment in the green economy; future reports will address good practices in workforce development for women in the green economy.
 
Valuing Good Health in New York City: The Costs and Benefits of Earned Sick Days
by Jeff Hayes, Ph.D. (March 2013)
 
Valuing Good Health in New York City: The Costs and Benefits of Earned Sick Days
by Claudia Williams (March 2013)

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International Center for Research on Women

ICRW's mission is to empower women, advance gender equality and fight poverty in the developing world. To accomplish this, ICRW works with partners to conduct empirical research, build capacity and advocate for evidence-based, practical ways to change policies and programs.

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Ph. (202) 797-0007
Fx. (202) 797-0020
http://www.icrw.org
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Lyric Thompson, Special Assistant to the President/Policy Advocate

Kristin Fack, Administrative Assistant
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Adolescents

ICRW has been examining the lives of adolescents – especially girls – for more than two decades. Our work focuses on improving their well-being and identifying ways to change deeply entrenched traditional practices that prevent girls and young women from reaching their full potential. We believe that making the abilities, attitudes and options of adolescent girls and boys more equitable is one of the most effective ways to empower women. And our research shows that all aspects of young people’s lives – school, relationships, work, health and marriage – must be addressed in order to bring about lasting social change. Adolescent programs and policies require working with not only girls, but boys, parents, teachers, community members, leaders, schools and employers, too.
 
 
ICRW has been examining for more than 30 years how disparities between women and men affect agricultural productivity and food security. Our research helps development organizations, policymakers and others find practical ways to enhance women’s roles in agricultural production and trade, thereby improving their incomes and livelihoods.

ICRW analyzes the differences between the responsibilities, limitations and interests of male and female farmers to design strategies that provide services, training and incomes. Our findings and recommendations help identify sound approaches that ensure efforts reach women as well as men. Ultimately, we aim to help farmers become competitive participants in the agricultural marketplace and reap the financial benefits.
 
 
Economic development efforts to combat poverty can only succeed if women are part of the solution. Doing so yields a double dividend: When women are economically empowered, they raise healthier, better educated families. Their countries are more economically prosperous because of it, too.

Since our founding more than 30 years ago, ICRW's work has expanded understanding of women's economic contributions as well as the hurdles that prevent them from being successful. Our efforts focus on how gender affects economic development efforts related to assets and property rights as well as employment, enterprise development and financial services.
 
We strive to increase women's ownership, use and control of assets and property. We want to empower women as economic agents and better their ability to access markets on competitive and equitable terms. And with our partners, ICRW aims to integrate gender perspectives into program and institution activities. We believe such an approach improves the likelihood that efforts to strengthen women economically are successful.
 
 
ICRW was among the first organizations in the early 1990s to call attention to how gender inequality fueled the transmission of HIV and AIDS among women. Today, ICRW continues to push the AIDS agenda forward. As the global response moves from a focus on crisis management into a sustained, long-term strategy, our work centers around how HIV programs and policies can better serve the needs of women and girls. We work with partners to design, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of programs that strive to reduce women's social and biological vulnerability to HIV. We also aim to weave these programs into existing family planning, reproductive and maternal health services. Ultimately, we strive to influence national policies by guiding governments and others on how to address the role that gender norms play in the prevention, support and treatment of HIV.
 
 
ICRW strives to demonstrate that improved sexual and reproductive health outcomes are pre-conditions for achieving gender equality, empowering women and reducing global poverty. ICRW’s research in this area aims to build a sound evidence base to inform programs and policies by defining the fundamental connections between gender, reproductive health and development, highlighting the importance of adolescent transitions to adulthood, analyzing means for facilitating women’s access to safe and effective reproductive control options, and undertaking rigorous evaluations to demonstrate what works.
 
Our approach examines how gender equality is both a determinant and a consequence of demographic change. For example, our current research suggests that as fertility rates decline in developing countries, women gain increased access to higher education and formal employment opportunities. This in turn can facilitate more transformative shifts in gender relations. Findings such as these bolster the policy directive that advancing women’s and girls’ reproductive health creates conditions that improve the quality of life for individuals, families, communities and nations.
 
 
ICRW employs a multifaceted approach to reducing violence against women. We conduct empirical research to better understand the incidence of violence, costs associated with it and factors that lead to it. We also are building evidence on interventions designed to prevent violence against women, particularly comprehensive approaches that include economically empowering women, involving boys and men, protecting survivors of violence and rehabilitating men who are abusive. ICRW is examining the policy dimensions of violence prevention by evaluating the impact of and challenges to existing legislation and using our findings to advocate for stronger, more effective laws. Finally, ICRW participates in strategic regional and global networks that work to strengthen civil society and advance the field of preventing violence against women.

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